Today, Bethesda teaches us all about Intelligence in the latest Fallout 4 S.P.E.C.I.A.L. video.
In the new video, it is shown (in wonderfully violent, cartoon fashion) that your Intelligence attribute will allow you access to different types of technology (hacking Mr. Handy anyone?), better crafting capabilities, and modifiers for certain perks (Nerd Rage!). It will also presumably decide how many skill points per level you receive, as well as modify your science, repair, and medicine skills.
Fallout 4 is set to launch on November 10, 2015.